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Extension توسعه زراعتی

ContentsASK ME Extension Flow Model

Problems and Opportunities

  • Primary Problems include lack of communication between extension and other departments, lack of cooperative extension agreements (competition between ministry and universities), corruption (hiring based on personal favors rather than qualifications), consequent lack of qualified staff, lack of accountability and institutional management and checks and balancing (resulting in high inefficiency and low activity), lack of dissemination of achievements (ie projects developing improved technologies, resources, etc--these are never communicated out to the provinces), no improved extension communication tools, extension agents have no access to updated information following graduation from university, lack of measurement facilities and expertise (laboratories, tools, etc), lack of allocated budget for extension activities in general, poor security, poor infrastructure (roads, etc), challenging geography.
  • Primary Opportunities include information and communication technologies (ICTs) that allow extension agents to diagnose and problem solve, ICTs that facilitate communication between farmers and extension agents when face to face is not possible, better cooperation between research institutions and extension agents, improved infrastructure (roads, electricity).  

Primary Problems and Opportunities from the Ministry of Agriculture Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) and the Directorate of Agriculture Irrigation and Livestock (DAIL).


  • Awareness to Adoption
    Moving from Information to Adoption
    "ASK ME" Agricultural Extension Framework Info Sheet and icon video Video (UC Davis)
  • TIGRS Keys to Success Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • AID - 3 steps to turning information in to Action Info Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Skills Required for Successful Extension Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • ICT in Extension Fact Sheet (UC Davis, USAID)
  • Ten Rules of Effective Extension (TREE) Fact Sheet (Roots of Peace)
  • System Elements Enhancing Development Fact Sheet (UC Davis)



Plan Implementation                                                                     


Developing a Program - the "ASK ME" Framework and the "TIGRS" Success Factors                                                                      

ASK ME poster

The "ASK ME" framework

Keys for success "TIGRS"

A = Audience and Needs

S = Solutions

K = Key message 

M = Message form and delivery 

E = Evaluation

T = Trust in the message and the messenger

I = Integrated approaches - Engage farmers

GR = Good Recommendations
Credible, Relevant (Demand-driven), Clear benefit, Testable

S = “Seeing is believing”


A = Audience and Needs. "Who is the target audience and what are the major problems?"

Field DiagnosticsAssessing Needs
  • Assessing Needs Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Needs and Opportunity Assessment (NOA) Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Gathering Secondary Data Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Crop Management Survey Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges (SWOC) Analysis Fact Sheet
Choosing partners Working with groups


S = Solutions. "What is the trues cause of the problem and what are some credible solutions?"

    • Evaluate Solutions Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
    • Recommendation Domains - Determining Area of Recommendation Applicability Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
    • Evaluating Technology Options Fact Sheet and Trainer Exercise  (UC Davis)
      • To compile technology options online, see Knowledge Bank Manual (UC Davis)


K = Key Message. "What does the used need to know versus what is nice to know?"

      • "Content is King."  It is vital to get the message right.
      • Identifying the Key Message Fact Sheet (UC Davis)


M = Message form and delivery. "What is the best way to share information with users?"

 Resource materials

Message Planning Message Delivery


Developing materials
  • 3 questions to Ask of Your Material Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • AID - 3 steps to turning information in to Action Info Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Create your Lesson Plan Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Developing a Knowledge Bank Manual (UC Davis) 
  • Extension Material Development Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Drafting your Message Exercise Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Creating Fact Sheets Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Evaluating Fact Sheets Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Creating a Poster Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Using PowerPoint Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Video Shooting Tips Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Low Cost Video Toolkit Manual (USAID)
  • Interactive Radio Toolkit Manual (USAID)
  • Social Media Toolkit Manual (USAID)
  • Persuasive Writing Fact Sheet (UC Davis)

Delivering an event

Building Trust Fact Sheet (UC Davis)


Field demonstrations

  • Field Demonstrations Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Test Strips for Field Demonstration Fact Sheet (UC Davis)
  • Farmer-led Demonstrations - the Farm Walk Fact Sheet (US Davis)
  • Designing Simple Experiments for Informal Demonstrations Manual (Roots of Peace)

E = Evaluation. "How can you improve each step?"

Extension Theory                                                                                                               


Culture Aspects                                                                                                                  

  • Culture and Working Locally Webpage



  • MEAS: ICT and Extension Link
  • Extension "Blending the Old and the New" Link (UC Davis)